KHARTOUM, Sudan (AP) – The Sudanese Christian marchers weaved through bustling markets and traffic-clogged streets wearing â€œI Love Jesusâ€ T-shirts or colorful traditional robes known as thobes.
â€œGlory to God in the highest. And on Earth, peace, goodwill toward men,â€ a speaker said. Hymns blared and chants of â€œhallelujahâ€ intermingled with loud, emotion-filled cries of celebration. Passersby and merchants snapped photos or flashed victory signs.
The marching group from the Bahri Evangelical Church was small, but the symbolism of the moment loomed much larger. The March for Jesus holiday tradition had been suspended in recent years under authoritarian President Omar al-Bashir, whose government was accused of harassing and marginalizing Christians and other religious minorities.
This holiday season, a year after the eruption of the uprising against al-Bashir, Sudan is transitioning away from his three-decade repressive rule. The military overthrew him in April after months of pro-democracy protests. A transitional military-civilian administration now rules the country.
Though some caution against being overly optimistic about expanded religious freedom, Monday’s march was one small sign of new openings.
â€œHallelujah! Today, we are happy that the Sudanese government has opened up the streets for us so we can express our faith,â€ said Izdhar Ibrahim, one of the marchers. Some Christians had been frightened before â€œbecause we used to encounter difficulties.â€
The changes started in 2011, after South Sudan gained independence from Sudan following a long war and a referendum. South Sudan is mostly Christian and animist, a belief that all objects have a spirit. Al-Bashir’s government then escalated its pressure on the remaining Christians, human-rights campaigners and Christians say.
Al-Bashir, who came to power in an Islamist-backed military coup in 1989, failed to keep the peace in the religiously and ethnically diverse country.
Noah Manzul, one of the church elders, said the march was treated almost as if it were a â€œcrime.â€
Its return is â€œan expression of religious freedom,â€ Manzul said. â€œWe can live our lives with ease.â€
Manzul’s social work with homeless children and orphans got him into trouble under al-Bashir, when he was accused of trying to convert the children to Christianity, an allegation he denies. Activities like singing hymns in the teeming market outside the church were stopped, he said.
To be sure, some Christians said they were not impacted negatively by al-Bashirâ€™s government, and officials at the time disputed that the government targeted Christians.
But Suliman Baldo, senior adviser at the Enough Project, which supports peace and an end to atrocities in Africaâ€™s conflict zones, said the ultimate goal under al-Bashir was â€œto limit the influence of the church.â€ Under his rule, Christian church properties could be seized, Baldo said, adding some churches were demolished, and some preachers were arrested.
During past holiday seasons, many recalled, posters would appear on the streets warning against celebrating with the â€œkofar,â€ or infidels, a reference to Christians.
But this year, Dec. 25 was declared a public holiday. Earlier, a Christian woman was appointed to the countryâ€™s interim ruling Sovereign Council.
Pastor Hafiz Dasta, of the Bahri church, said a Muslim cousin can now ring in the season with him.
â€œI always celebrated with him at Eid al-Adha,â€ Dasta said, referring to the Islamic feast. â€œHe couldnâ€™t celebrate with me on Christmas because he would be working. This time around … we will celebrate together and eat together,â€ he said before Christmas.
The church is still embroiled in legal cases stemming from land and other disputes, Dasta said. But at least on the day of the march, it was all about celebrating Jesus. â€œHow great is freedom!â€ he exclaimed during the gathering.
Ezekiel Kondo, archbishop of the Episcopal Church of Sudan, said he was encouraged by government efforts but he wants to see more changes such as the legalization of some churches. Many Christians acknowledge that some churches were built without permits, but they say obtaining the required paperwork under al-Bashir’s government proved virtually impossible.
â€œThey would say come back tomorrow, and tomorrow never comes,â€ Kondo said.
Kondo, like some, says it is too early to know if thereâ€™s â€œcomplete freedom, especially religious freedom.â€
As recently as June, nearly two months after al-Bashirâ€™s removal, a violent security crackdown left scores of pro-democracy protesters dead. As Sudan marked the first anniversary of the anti-al-Bashir protests, Amnesty International urged transitional authorities to protect rights and deliver on change demands, including accountability for the killings. Some pro-democracy activists also pointed to what they say are discriminatory laws that remain on the books even as they commend the repeal of a notorious moral policing law.
At least one influential group of outside observers says the changes are encouraging, despite the challenges.
Anurima Bhargava, a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, said in a phone interview that a commission meeting earlier in December with the Sudanese Prime Minister, Abdalla Hamdok, and other officials was â€œone of the most promising meetings that weâ€™ve had.â€
She said commissioners raised concerns that included the demolition of some churches and the damage to church properties under al-Bashir.
Hamdok, appointed in August, and other Sudanese government officials outlined efforts to ensure protection of religious freedoms and human rights, including trying to make changes to apostasy and blasphemy laws, she said.
â€œTheyâ€™re working on a bunch of different fronts. I think itâ€™s going to take some time for all of that to be felt,â€ Bhargava said.
The efforts have been noted. In a Dec. 20 statement from U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, the State Department announced that Sudan had been dropped from a list of countries that have engaged in or tolerated â€œsystematic, ongoing and egregious violations of religious freedomâ€ and upgraded to a special watch list. It attributed the change to â€œsignificant stepsâ€ taken by the transitional government.
Back in Bahri, the marchers sang the Sudanese national anthem, waved Sudanese flags and swayed to hymns. One passerby rhythmically clapped to the blaring music. A driver honked his horn to the beat. Others pumped their fists in the air in support or gave the revelers thumbs-up.
Men and women pressed small books, like the Gospels of Luke and John, into the palms of onlookers. Some paged through them. Others tucked them in their pockets or turned them down.
Nahla Motassim, a Muslim, didnâ€™t want a book but said she supports the march.
â€œThe former regime restricted freedom of religions … when they themselves didnâ€™t apply Islam. The regime was unjust,â€ she said. â€œI believe in something and someone else believes in another thing … Thatâ€™s between him and God, but I live with him, eat with him and drink with him.â€
The march â€œsymbolizes freedom of expression and of opinion in our diverse country after 30 years of oppression to all kinds of Sudanese,â€ marcher Finlay Philemon said. â€œIâ€™m so happy.â€
As he spoke, a woman peered from behind the door to her house. Later, she came out.
â€œMerry Christmas,â€ the woman, Magdolin Mohamed, told him. â€œMay you always live in peace and safety.â€
â€œSame to you,â€ he responded with a wide smile.
Mohamed, a Muslim, said she wanted to salute the celebrants â€œbecause we are all one people.â€
Tears rolled down her face.
â€œBefore, they didnâ€™t give them the opportunity to go out and celebrate like that,â€ she said in between sobs. â€œI am so happy for them. I am happy that freedom is back, that life is back in Sudan.â€
Associated Press religion coverage receives support from the Lilly Endowment through the Religion News Foundation. The AP is solely responsible for this content.