Sometime back a reader asked us to write on Audhav Sampoorna Jaati, which is a category to classify different ragas in Classical Music. So, I contacted our Classical Music Expert Brinda Roy Chowdhury to explain it. This is what she told me:
Jaati: A raga can be composed of 5, 6 or 7 swaras. Based on the number of swaras used, all the ragas are classified. This classification is called the jaati of the raga. Ragas which are composed of 5 swaras come under Audhav Jaati. Ragas composed of 6 swaras come under Shadav Jaati and ragas which have all 7 notes in it are of Sampoorna (complete) Jaati. The different permutations and combinations of swaras in aaroha and avroha can be classified into the jaatis of 9 types:
- Sampoorna Sampoorna
- Sampoorna Shadav
- Sampoorna Audhav
- Shadav Sampoorna
- Shadav Shadav
- Shadav Audhav
- Audhav Sampoorna
- Audhav Shadav and
- Audhav Audhav
Sampoorna: We know that ragas have jaatis. Each raga has an aaroha (ascending or going from the lower notes to the higher notes) and an avroha (descending or coming down from higher to the lower notes/swaras). In many ragas, the aaroha has 5 notes, but the avroha of the same raga has all the 7 notes. In such a case, we term the jaati of the raga to be Audhav- Sampoorna. Similarly, when the aaroha and avroha have all the 7 notes, we call its jaati to be Sampoorna Sampoorna or simply, Sampoorna.
Audhav Sampoorna: The adjective Audhav is added to a jaati when the raga has only 5 notes in it. Some ragas can have the jaati of Audhav Audhav (where both aaroha and avroha have 5 notes) and some ragas can have the jaati of Audhav Sampoorna (with aaroha of 5 notes and avroha of 7 notes).
Bollywood and Audhav Sampoorna: Some ragas representing the Audhav Sampoorna Jaati with examples of Bollywood songs based on them are:
Raga Kedar – Bekas pe karam kijiye… Mughal-e-Azam (1960)
Raga Desh – Aji ruth kar ab… Aarzoo (1964)
Raga Bageshri – Radha na bole na bole… Azaad (1955)
Raga Bhimpalasi – Khilte hain gul yahan… Sharmilee (1971)
Raga Patdeep – Megha chhaye adhi raat… Sharmilee (1971)
Raga Asavari – Jhanak jhanak tori baje… Mere Huzoor (1968)
In the video, Brinda has recorded a demo, explaining the Audhav Sampoorna Jaati.